Chemistry in their element: carbon
You hear chemistry in your element that was brought to youChemiewelt, The magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Hello, this week to the element, the weddings, wars, conflicts and cremation combines and explains how, here is Katherine Holt.
Every chemist could talk about carbon for days. After all, it is an everyday, usual, mill, well-founded, everything that is an omnipresent element for US carbon-based ways of life. A whole branch of chemistry is devoted to his reactions.
In its elementary form, there are some surprises in the contrasting and fascinating forms of his allotrope. It seems that a new form of carbon is fashionable every few years-carbon nanor throats were the new black (or should I "theNew Bucky Ball "Say)-but Graphen is oh so now!
But today I will talk about the most glamorous form that Carbon can take - Diamond. Site for millennia is associated with wealth and wealth, since it can be cut to gemstones with high clarity, brilliance and durability. Unfortunately, diamonds are really! UnfortunatelyDiamond also a dark side - the greed that induces Diamond, leads to trade with so -called "conflict diamonds", which support and finance civil wars.
Mans's wish has caused alchemists and chemists to synthesize the material for many centuries. After many fraudulent early claims, Diamond was finally artificially synthesized in the 1950s. Scientists were inspired by nature by stating the conditions underof course the diamond formed deeply below the earth's crust. They used high temperatures (over 3000ÖC) and high pressures (> 130 ATMs) to transform graphite into carbon. This was an impressive performance, but the necessary extreme conditions made it unaffordable as a commercial process.Lower temperatures and pressures are required. crystals with a few micrometer diameter can be formed in a few minutes, but a 2-carat noine quality crystal can take several weeks.
These techniques mean that it is now possible to artificially synthesize diamonds of gem quality, which cannot be distinguished from the natural diamond without the help of specialist equipment. It goes without saying that this is the case with the companies that act with natural diamondsCould cause! It is possible to transform any carbon base into a diamond - including hair and even cremation! Yes - you can transform your very abandoned pet into a diamond to stay forever if you want! Artificial diamonds are chemicaland physically identical to the natural stones and come without ethical luggage.Yes, reallyloves you, he would buy yourealDiamond - wouldn't he?
From the perspective of a chemist, material scientist or engineer, we will soon be able to describe the amazing physical, electronic and chemical properties of diamonds. It is the hardest material that is known to humans and more or less inert - able toto withstand the strongest and most corrosive acids. It has the highest thermal conductivity of every material and is therefore excellent for replacing heat, which is why diamonds always feel cold. With a wide band gap, it is the example of a textbook for an insulating material and has from the sameReason an amazing transparency and optical properties over the widest wavelength range of every solid material.
You can then see why Diamond is exciting for scientists and inert nature point to applications as protective coatings against abrasion, chemical corrosion and radiation damage.For windows and lenses, and its biocompatibility could be used in coatings for implants.
These properties have been known for centuries - then why is the use of Diamond not spread? The reason is that natural diamonds and diamonds, which are formed by high -pressure high -temperature synthesis, are of limited size - usually a few millimeters and can only go alongCertain crystal surfaces are cut and shaped. This prevents the use of diamonds in most proposed applications.
About 20 years ago, however, scientists discovered a new way to synthesize DiamondlowPressure, high temperature conditions, using chemical steam separation.View under ambient conditions spontaneously transform into graphite! It is clear that this is not the case and that is because of it.
It is this metastability of diamond, which is used in chemical steam deposits. A mixture of 99 % hydrogen and 1 % methane is used and some activation sources such as a hot filament for the production of high-reactive hydrogen and methyl radicals.Surface to form a coating or a thin diamond film. In fact, both graphite and diamond are initially formed, but under these highly reactive conditions the graphite deposits from the surface are etched from the surface, so that only the diamond. The films are polycrystallineAnd consist of crystallites in the micrometer sizes, so that the clarity and brilliance of gemstone diamond is missing. During you may not be as pretty, these diamond films can be deposited on a series of surfaces of different sizes and shapes and the potential applications of Diamond So stronglyThe challenges still remain in order to understand and learn how to use the complex chemistry of intercrystalline limits and the surface chemistry of the films.However, we can all agree that Diamond has more than just a pretty face!
Katherine fetched the virtues of the jewel in Carbon's Crown. Nevertheless, we take the group of the group to hear the history of the metal that revolutionized the treatment of manic depression.
The calming effect on the brain was first found in 1949 by an Australian doctor John Cade from the Victoria Department of Mental Hygiene. He had injected guinea pigs with a 0.5% solution from lithium carbonate, and to its surprise, these are usually suddenly unless.Cade then gave his mentally disturbed patient an injection of the same solution. The man replied so well that he was brought to a normal hospital station within a few days and was soon back at work.
And it is still used today, although despite 50 years of medical progress, we still don't know how it works. This was Matt Wilkinson, who will be here with the history of lithium about the chemistry of the next week in his element.I hope you can join us. I am Chris Smith, thanks for listening and looking good.
Chemistry in your element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and created bythenakedscientists.com. There is more information and other chemistry episodes in its element on our website atchemistryworld.org/elements.
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What are the properties and uses of the element carbon? ›
Carbon is unique among the elements in its ability to form strongly bonded chains, sealed off by hydrogen atoms. These hydrocarbons, extracted naturally as fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), are mostly used as fuels.What are the 5 properties of carbon? ›
- 1) Atomic Number: The atomic number of carbons is 6.
- 2) Atomic Mass: Its atomic mass is 12.011 g mol-1.
- 3) Electronegativity: According to Pauling, the electronegativity of carbon is 2.5.
- 4) Boiling Point: Its boiling point is 4827o C.
- 5) Melting Point: Its melting point is 3652o C.
Carbon (from Latin carbo 'coal') is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—its atom making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust.What are 5 things carbon is used for? ›
Carbon compounds have limitless uses. In its elemental form, diamond is a gemstone and used for drilling/cutting; graphite is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and to protect against rust; while charcoal is used to remove toxins, tastes, and odors. The isotope Carbon-14 is used in radiocarbon dating.What are the two main properties of carbon? ›
- The valency of carbon is four, thus it can form covalent bonds with other atoms/elements. This property is known as tetravalency.
- Carbon has the ability to form long chains when it gets linked with other carbon atoms. ...
- Carbon can form single/double/triple bonds.
|Electronegativity according to Pauling||2.5|
|Density||2.2 g.cm-3 at 20°C|
|Melting point||3652 °C|
|Boiling point||4827 °C|
Life on earth would not be possible without carbon. This is in part due to carbon's ability to readily form bonds with other atoms, giving flexibility to the form and function that biomolecules can take, such as DNA and RNA, which are essential for the defining characteristics of life: growth and replication.What is the importance of carbon? ›
Carbon is an essential element for all life forms on Earth. Whether these life forms take in carbon to help manufacture food or release carbon as part of respiration, the intake and output of carbon is a component of all plant and animal life. Carbon is in a constant state of movement from place to place.What are 10 uses of carbon? ›
- It makes up for 18% of the human body. Sugar, glucose, proteins etc are all made of it. ...
- Carbon in its diamond form is used in jewellery. ...
- Amorphous carbon is used to make inks and paints. ...
- Graphite is used as the lead in your pencils. ...
- One of the most important uses is carbon dating.
On Earth, most carbon is stored in rocks and sediments, while the rest is located in the ocean, atmosphere, and in living organisms. These are the reservoirs, or sinks, through which carbon cycles.
What is called carbon? ›
carbon (C), nonmetallic chemical element in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table. Although widely distributed in nature, carbon is not particularly plentiful—it makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust—yet it forms more compounds than all the other elements combined.What are 4 properties of carbon? ›
- The atomic number of carbon is 6.
- The atomic mass of carbon is 12.011 g. ...
- The density of the carbon atom is 2.2 g. ...
- The melting and boiling point of carbon is 3652 °C and 4827 °C, respectively.
- The Van der Waals radius is 0.091 nm.
Carbon atoms comprise a nucleus of neutrons and six protons surrounded by six electrons. Quantum mechanics dictates that the first two electrons occupy the inner atomic orbital, while the remaining four electrons have wavefunctions that only half-fill the second standard and three second principal orbitals.What is the most important property of carbon? ›
Why is carbon so basic to life? The reason is carbon's ability to form stable bonds with many elements, including itself. This property allows carbon to form a huge variety of very large and complex molecules. In fact, there are nearly 10 million carbon-based compounds in living things!How is carbon used in the body? ›
Carbon is a quadrivalent element; that is, it can bond with four chemical elements, which makes it a fundamental atom in organic chemistry. Carbon chains are used to build carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; breaking these chains provides the human body with energy.What type of element is carbon? ›
Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. Classified as a nonmetal, Carbon is a solid at room temperature.What are the 3 main characteristics of carbon? ›
- Valency of carbon atom is 4.
- Carbon can make a single bond, double bond, and triple bond with other atoms.
- It can make linear, branched chains and cyclic compounds by bonding with other carbon atoms and other elements.
The bonding properties of carbon
Perhaps more important, however, is carbon's capacity for covalent bonding. Because a C atom can form covalent bonds to as many as four other atoms, it's well suited to form the basic skeleton, or “backbone,” of a macromolecule.
Hence, the property of the self combination of carbon atoms is called catenation.What is carbon used for in everyday life? ›
Carbon Uses in Everyday Life
Graphite can be used as the lead in pencils and is also used in steel production. Amorphous carbon can be used in making paints and inks and in batteries.
Who found carbon? ›
Discovered: Independently by Daniel Rutherford and by C.W. Scheele and H. Cavendish in 1772.Where does carbon come from? ›
Most carbon is stored in reservoirs, or sinks, such as rocks and sediments, while the rest is stored in the atmosphere, oceans, and living organisms. Carbon is released back into to the atmosphere through respiration by animals and plants. It is also released by burning materials such as wood, oil and gas.What are 7 carbon sources? ›
Forests, soil, oceans, the atmosphere, carbonate rocks and fossil fuels are important stores of carbon. Natural sinks for atmospheric CO2 include photosynthesis, forests, oceans and freshwater bodies, fossil fuels and carbonate rocks.Where is carbon born? ›
As the sixth-most abundant element in the universe, carbon forms in the belly of stars in a reaction called the triple-alpha process, according to the Swinburne Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing (opens in new tab).Is carbon a metal or nonmetal? ›
Carbon is a true nonmetal in every sense. Lead is a true metal. Silicon is almost completely nonmetallic; tin is almost completely metallic.What is another name for carbon? ›
Diamond, Graphite, Fullerene, and carbon nanotubes are prominent allotropes of carbon.What is a example of carbon? ›
For instance, coal, graphite, and diamonds are allotropes of carbon. Although they are made up of only one type of element, which is carbon, they differ in physical properties. For instance, graphite is opaque whereas diamond is transparent.How many types of carbon is there? ›
Types of carbon
Carbon in nature is found in three forms called allotropes: diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. Graphite, with clay, is in pencils.
The Key Atomic Properties
Atomic properties that are critical to the behavior of elements are electron configuration, atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.
Is carbon used by humans? ›
Carbon is the chemical backbone of life on Earth. Carbon compounds regulate the Earth's temperature, make up the food that sustains us, and provide energy that fuels our global economy.What are the 4 unique properties of carbon? ›
- Tetravalency of carbon.
- 3.1 Organic Compounds.
- 3.2 Inorganic Carbon Compounds.
- 3.3 Organometallic Compounds.
- 3.4 Carbon Allotropes.
- 3.5 Carbon Alloys.
- 3.6 Alcohol Production: Ethanol.
The most unique property of carbon atoms is its ability to combine itself, atom to atom to form long chains. This property of self-combination is useful to us because it gives rise to an extremely large number of carbon compounds or organic compounds.What is the example of carbon? ›
For instance, coal, graphite, and diamonds are allotropes of carbon. Although they are made up of only one type of element, which is carbon, they differ in physical properties. For instance, graphite is opaque whereas diamond is transparent.Is carbon 12 a thing? ›
Carbon occurs naturally in three isotopes: carbon 12, which has 6 neutrons (plus 6 protons equals 12), carbon 13, which has 7 neutrons, and carbon 14, which has 8 neutrons. Every element has its own number of isotopes.What is carbon 10 called? ›
Monoterpenes. A terpene molecule contains 10 carbon atoms (derived from two isoprene units) and at least one double bond. Terpene hydrocarbons are thermally labile and easily oxidized and, thus, citrus oils, which contain a high level of terpenes, do not keep well.What is carbon 12 called? ›